Clifford M. Snapper


Department of Primary Appointment:
School of Medicine
Location: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD
Research Interests:
Basic and Translational Immunology
Office Phone


B.S. Brooklyn College (City University of New York), Brooklyn, New York, 1975
M.D. Albany Medical College (Union University, Albany, New York, 1981
Intern, Internal Medicine, Albany Medical Center Hospital, Albany, New York, 1981-1982
Resident, Department of Pathology, The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, 1982-1985
Medical Staff Fellow, Laboratory of Immunology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, 1985-1988

Career Highlights: Positions, Projects, Deployements, Awards and Additional Publications

1994-present Professor (secondary), Cell and Molecular Biology Program,USUHS

1998-present Professor (secondary), Department of Medicine, USUHS

1998-present Adjunct Professor, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani (Rajasthan),India

2000-present Professor (secondary), Emerging Infectious Diseases Program

2000-present Director, Institute for Vaccine Research, USUHS

1975 Theodore Smits Memorial Award in Astronomy and Physics

1989 Burroughs Wellcome Fund Developing Investigator Award, Immunopharmacology of Allergic Diseases

1992 The Jeffrey Modell Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award

2009 Exceptional Lab Instructor in Pathology, USUHS

2008 Member, Ad Hoc; NIH Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel: “Hypersensitivity, Autoimmune, and Immune-Mediated Diseases”

Representative Bibliography

Snapper, C. M., and F. D. Finkelman. Immunoglobulin class switching. In: Fundamental Immunology 4th edition, W. E. Paul ed., Raven Press, N.Y., 1997.

Snapper, C. M. and J. Banchereau. Cytokines in antibody responses. In: The cytokine network and immune functions, 1999. Ed. J. Theze.

Vos, Q., Lees, A., Wu, Z-Q., Snapper, C. M., and Mond, J. J. 2000. B cell activation by T cell independent type 2 antigens as an integral part of the humoral immune response to pathogenic microorganisms. Immunol. Rev. 176:154.

Snapper, C. M., Shen, Y., Khan, A. Q., Colino, J., Zelazowski, P., Mond, J. J., Gause, W. C., and Wu, Z-Q. 2001. Distinct types of T-cell help for the induction of a humoral immune response to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Trends in Immunology. 22:308.

Colino, J. and Snapper. C. M. 2003. Dendritic cells, new tools for vaccination. Microbes and Infection 5: 311.

Snapper, C. M., Wu, Z-Q., Khan, A. Q., and Colino, J. The humoral immune response to Streptococcus pneumoniae. In: The Pneumococcus. 2004. Eds. E. Tuomanen, T. Mitchell, D. Morrison, and B. Spratt.

Snapper, C. M. 2006. Differential regulation of protein- and polysaccharide-specific Ig isotype production in vivo in response to intact Streptococcus pneumoniae. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 7 :295.

Goldblatt, D. and Snapper, C. M. 2007. Immunobiology of pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines. In. Pneumococcal Vaccines: The Impact of Conjugate Vaccine. Eds. G. Siber, K. Klugman, and H. Makela, ASM Press.

Snapper, C. M. 2012. Mechanisms underlying in vivo polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin responses to intact extracellular bacteria. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1253: 92.

Snapper, C. M. 2015. The humoral immune response to T cell-independent antigens. Encyclopedia of Immunology, Elsevier.