Nicholas Cody Schaal


Commander, Navy

Department of Primary Appointment:
School of Medicine
Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics
Adjunct Associate Professor
Location: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD
Research Interests:
Primary Research Interests: ototoxicants/chemical induced hearing loss, occupational noise exposure, hearing conservation, exposure assessment techniques, general industrial hygiene
Secondary Research Interests: safety management systems, safety training interventions
Office Phone


Ph.D., Safety Sciences, Indiana University of Pennsylvania
M.S., Environmental Health (Industrial Hygiene specialization), Colorado State University
B.S., Environmental Management, University of Maryland University College
A.A.S., Bioenvironmental Engineering Technology, Community College of the Air Force


CDR Schaal enlisted in the U.S. Air Force in June 1996 in the Bioenvironmental Engineering career field. His assignments included Offutt Air Force Base and Misawa Air Base serving in a variety of roles to include non-commissioned officer in charge of Industrial Hygiene and environmental surveillance. He earned his commission as a Lieutenant Junior Grade in 2007 through the U.S. Navy’s Health Services Collegiate Program as an Industrial Hygiene Officer.

CDR Schaal’s U.S. Navy assignments have included: Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit No. 2, USS ENTERPRISE (CVN-65), Naval Hospital Sigonella, Naval Hospital Bremerton, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton, and 3d Marine Logistics Group. CDR Schaal is currently the Commanding Officer of the Naval Safety and Environmental Training Center in Norfolk Virginia.

He earned an Associate of Applied Science in Bioenvironmental Engineering Technology from the Community College of the Air Force, a Bachelor of Science in Environmental Management from University of Maryland University College, a Master of Science in Environmental Health from Colorado State University, and a Doctor of Philosophy in Safety Science from Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

He holds national board certifications as a Certified Industrial Hygienist and Certified Safety Professional. CDR Schaal also holds academic appointments as Associate Professor of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences and Assistant Professor of Industrial Hygiene at Air Force Institute of Technology.

Career Highlights: Positions, Projects, Deployements, Awards and Additional Publications

Current Positions:

Commanding Officer, Naval Safety and Environmental Training Center

Assistant Specialty Leader for Industrial Hygiene-Special Projects (2022-Present)

Representative Teaching:

PMO 1021/1029 Occupational Noise Control: In-Resident and Distributed Learning (2018-Present)

PMO 550 Industrial Hygiene I and Lab (2016-2022)

PMO 540 Introduction to Environmental Health (2017)


U.S. Navy Industrial Hygiene Officer of the Year Award (2018)

Dean's Impact Award, Uniformed Services University, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine (2017)

Representative Bibliography

Jensen, L., Schaal, N. C., English, J., Dunford, J., & Stubner, A. H. (2023). Assessment of Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to Permethrin During Field Treatment of Military Uniforms. Military Medicine, 188(1-2), e228-e234.

Blair, M., Slagley, J., & Schaal, N. C. (2022). Pure Tone Audiometry Evaluation Method Effectiveness in Detecting Hearing Changes Due to Workplace Ototoxicant, Continuous Noise, and Impulse Noise Exposures. Ear and Hearing, 43(4), 1291-1299.

Blair, M., Slagley, J., & Schaal, N. C. (2021). Effect of noise and ototoxicants on developing standard threshold shifts at a US Air Force depot level maintenance facility. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 18(7), 323-333.

Schaal, N., Salaam, R., Stevens, M. & Stubner, A. (2019). Living At Work: 24 Hour Exposure Aboard U.S. Navy Aircraft Carriers. Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 63(3), 316-327.

Hansen, J., Schaal, N., Juarez, T., & Woodlee, C. (2019). Nitrous Oxide Exposure Among Dental Personnel and Comparison of Active and Passive Sampling Techniques. Annals of Work Exposures and Health. 63(3), 337-348.

Schaal, N.C., Lange, K., & Majar, M. (2019). Noise at sea: Characterization of extended shift noise exposures among U.S. Navy aircraft carrier support personnel, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 16(2), 109-119.

Schaal, N. C., Slagley, J. M., Richburg, C. M., Zreiqat, M. M., & Paschold, H. W. (2018). Chemical-Induced Hearing Loss in Shipyard Workers. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 60(1), e55-e62.

Schaal, N. C., Brazile, W. J., Finnie, K. L., & Tiger, J. P. (2017). Effects of Known Determinants on Methylene Bisphenyl Isocyanate (MDI) Concentration During Spray-On Truck Bed-Lining Processes. Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 61(7), 872-882.

Schaal, N., Slagley, J., Zreiqat, M., & Paschold, H. (2017). Effects of combined exposure to metals, solvents, and noise on permanent threshold shifts. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 60(3), 227-238. (doi: 10.1002/ajim.22690).

Shufutinsky, A., Shanahan, P., Schaal, N., Madad, S., & Johnson, D. (2015). Applying Conflict Analysis and Resolution Strategies to Assess Organizational Safety Culture in Accident Investigations. International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies, 2(3), 71- 90.