Paul E Rapp


Department of Primary Appointment:
School of Medicine
Military and Emergency Medicine
Director Traumatic Injury Research Program
Location: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD
Research Interests:
Clinical psychophysiology and neuropsychiatric disorders
Dynamical systems theory
Office Phone


B.S. University of Illinois, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Major: Physiology, Minor; Chemistry
B.S. University of Illinois, College of Engineering, Major: Engineering Physics
Ph.D. Cambridge University, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics


Paul Rapp attended the University of Illinois as a James Scholar. He received a Bachelors degree in Physiology (minor in Chemistry, Summa cum Laude) and a second Bachelors degree in Engineering Physics (Summa cum Laude) in 1972. He then attended Cambridge University as a Churchill Scholar and received his Ph.D. in 1975. His doctoral work, under the supervision of Professor Sir James Lighthill, was conducted in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics. Following graduation he was elected to a Fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge University. During this period he continued teaching in the Faculty of Mathematics and performed combined theoretical and experimental work in collaboration with Professor Sir Michael Berridge in the Invertebrate Chemistry and Physiology Unit at Cambridge. This work led to the publication of the calcium-cyclic nucleotide oscillator hypothesis. He joined the faculty of the Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1979.

At present, Rapp is a Professor of Military and Emergency Medicine at the Uniformed Services University and Director of the Traumatic Injury Research Program. He also holds a secondary appointment as a Professor of Medical and Clinical Psychology. Previously he was a Professor of Pharmacology and Physiology at Drexel University College of Medicine (the successor organization to the Medical College of Pennsylvania) and Director of Research at the Clinical Research Center at Norristown State Psychiatric Hospital.

Professor Rapp was a Candidate at the Philadelphia School of Psychoanalysis and has practiced as a psychotherapist/psychoanalyst at the Philadelphia Consultation Center.

He is a past editor of Physica, and has served on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, Chaos and Complexity Letters, and Cognitive Neurodynamics. Past honors include a Certificate of Commendation from the Central Intelligence Agency for “significant contributions to the mission of the Office of Research and Development.”

Career Highlights: Positions, Projects, Deployements, Awards and Additional Publications

Edmund James Scholar, University of Illinois, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

Edmund James Scholar, University of Illinois, College of Engineering

Elected to Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Tau

Churchill Scholar to Cambridge University

Fellow Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge Unversity

Certificate of Commendation, Central Intelligence Agency for Significant Contributions to the Mission of the Office of Research and Development

Representative Bibliography

Rapp,P.E. and Berridge,M.J. (1977). Oscillations in calcium-cyclic AMP control loops form the basis of pacemaker activity and other high frequency biological rhythms. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 66, 497-525.

Rapp,P.E., Schmah,T.I. and Mees,A.I. (1999). Models of knowing and the investigation of dynamical systems. Physica. 132D, 133-149.

Rapp,P.E., Cellucci,C.J. Gilpin,A.M.K., Jiménez-Montaño,M.A. and Korslund,K.E. (2011). Communication patterns in a psychotherapy following traumatic brain injury: A quantitative study based on symbolic dynamics. BMC Psychiatry. 11, 119

Rapp,P.E., Rosenberg,B.M., Keyser,D.O., Nathan,D., Toruno,K.M., Cellucci,C.J., Albano,A.M., Wylie,S.A., Gibson,D., Gilpin,A.M.K., and Bashore,T.R. (2013). Patient characterization protocols for studies of traumatic brain injury and post-TBI psychiatric disorders. Frontiers in Neurology (Neurotrauma) Volume 4. Article 91, 1-34.

Rapp,P.E., Cellucci,C.J., Keyser,D.O., Gilpin,A.M.K. and Darmon,D.M. (2013). Statistical issues in TBI clinical studies. Frontiers in Neurology (Neurotrauma). Volume 4. Article 177, 1-19.

Rapp,P.E., Keyser,D.O., Albano,A., Hernandez,R., Gibson,D. Zambon,R., Hairston,W.D., Hughes,J.D., Krystal,A. and Nichols,A. (2015). Traumatic braing injury detection using electrophysiological methods. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Volume 9, Article 11

Rapp,P.E., Keyser,D.O. and Gilpin,A.M.K. (2015). Procedures for the comparative testing of noninvasve neuroassessment devices. Journal of Neurotrauma. 32(16), 1281-1286.

Wang,C., Costanzo,M.E., Rapp,P.E., Darmon,D., Bashirelahi,K., Nathan,D.E., Cellucci,C.J., Roy,M.J. and Keyser,D.O. (2017). Identifying electrophysiological prodromes of post-traumataic stress disorder: results from a pilot study. Frontiers in Psychiatry. Volume 8, Article 71.

Darmon,D. and Rapp,P.E. (2017). Specific transfer entropy and other state-dependent transfer entropies for continuous-state input-output systems. Physical Review E. 96, 022121

Darmon,D., Cellucci,C.J. and Rapp,P.E. (2019). Information dynamics with confidence: using reservoir computing to construct confidence intervals for information dynamic measures. Entropy. 29: 083113